The Banana Anthracnose Disease is caused by the fungus Gloeosporium musarum is a serious disease that affects banana crops worldwide. The economic impact of Banana Anthracnose Disease is significant, as it reduces fruit yield, quality, and marketability and can result in the complete loss of yield. This disease attacks the flowers, epidermis, and distal ends of banana heads.
It is considered one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and has been responsible for significant crop losses in many countries. The disease can spread through infected plant material, tools, and machinery and persist in the soil for many years. Effective management of banana anthracnose requires a combination of cultural, biological, and chemical control measures.
Early detection and prompt implementation of control measures can help prevent the spread of the disease and minimize yield losses. To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Banana Anthracnose Disease in Banana crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Banana Anthracnose Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Banana Anthracnose Disease
- Gloeosporium musarum is a hemibiotrophic fungus that belongs to the Family Dermateaceae of Order Helotiales of the Phylum Ascomycota. It is formerly known as Colletotrichum musae.
- The pathogen produces spores called conidia, dispersed by wind and water to other parts of the plant or other banana plants.
- The pathogen can survive in infected plant debris and soil for several months, making it difficult to control.
The Disease Cycle of Banana Anthracnose Disease
- The disease cycle of the Banana Anthracnose disease, Gloeosporium musarum, in Banana Crops, begins with the fungal spores entering the banana plant through wounds or natural openings such as stomata.
- It has a two-stage infection process. The pathogen initially colonizes the plant surface through specialized infection structures called appressoria, which penetrate the plant cuticle and form a feeding structure known as the primary hyphae. These primary hyphae grow in the intercellular spaces of the plant and gradually spread through the tissue, causing localized tissue death and the formation of dark, sunken lesions.
- In the second stage of infection, the pathogen switches to a necrotrophic phase, secreting toxic compounds that cause rapid tissue death and decay.
- The conidia are also produced on the lesion’s surface and can be easily spread by human activity such as pruning or harvesting.
- The fungus can survive in infected plant debris and soil for several months, making it difficult to control. During this time, the fungus can continue to produce spores that can infect new plants.
Occurrence of Banana Anthracnose Disease in Banana Crop
- Location of Banana Anthracnose disease: This disease occurs in Banana crops in India, Africa, China, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by Gloeosporium musarum are Banana, Plantains, Pineapple, Papaya, Mango, Avocado, Oranges, Lemons, and Grapefruits.