The Banana Bract Mosaic Disease caused by the virus Banana Bract Mosaic Virus (BBMV) is a viral disease that affects banana plants worldwide. The economic impact of Banana Bract Mosaic Disease is significant, as it reduces fruit yield, quality, and marketability and can result in the complete loss of yield. The disease is spread through insect vectors, mainly aphids, and can be transmitted through infected planting material.
The spread of the disease can be avoided by using disease-free planting materials and implementing proper cultural and chemical control measures. To effectively manage this disease, it is essential to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Banana Bract Mosaic Virus Disease in Banana crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Banana Bract Mosaic Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Banana Bract Mosaic Disease
- BBMV is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Family Potyviridae of Order Patatavirales of the Phylum Pisuviricota. It was first identified in India in the 1960s.
- It is also known to infect some wild banana species, which can serve as a reservoir and a potential source of new infections.
- BBMV is transmitted through infected planting material, contaminated tools, and insects like aphids and mealybugs.
The Disease Cycle of Banana Bract Mosaic Disease
The disease cycle of the Banana Bract Mosaic Disease caused by the Banana Bract Mosaic Virus (BBMV) is complex and involves multiple stages. The virus is transmitted through vegetative propagation and by banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa) and banana lacewing bugs (Stephanitis typicus). Once the virus enters the plant, it replicates and spreads systemically through the phloem tissue infecting various tissues, including leaves, pseudostems, and fruit bunches.
The infected plants show no symptoms in the early stages, but as the disease progresses, characteristic symptoms appear. The virus can be present in the plant for several months before symptoms become visible, making early detection and control difficult. The virus can also persist in the soil and infected plant debris for long periods, and can be transmitted to healthy plants through root-to-root contact.
As banana plants are propagated vegetatively, the virus can easily spread using infected planting material. Additionally, infected plant debris left in the field after harvest can source infection for subsequent crops. The disease is primarily spread by infected suckers and transmitted by aphid vectors like Pentalonia nigronervosa, Aphis gossypii, and Rhopalosiphum maidis.
Occurrence of Banana Bract Mosaic Disease in Banana Crop
- Location of Banana Bract Mosaic disease: This disease occurs in Banana crops in India, Africa, China, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by BBMV are Bananas, Plantains, and Heliconias.