The Banana Bunchy Top Disease caused by the Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) is a viral disease affecting banana plants worldwide. The economic impact of Banana Bunchy Top Disease is significant, as it reduces fruit yield, quality, and marketability and can result in the complete loss of yield. BBTV is a highly infectious virus that can rapidly spread from infected plants to healthy ones, either through vegetative propagation or by insect vectors.
Efforts to prevent the spread of BBTD include strict quarantine measures and the use of disease-free planting materials. To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Banana Bunchy Top Virus Disease in Banana crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Banana Bunchy Top Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Banana Bunchy Top Disease
- BBTV is a single-stranded circular DNA virus that belongs to the Family Nanoviridae of Order Mulpavirales of the Phylum Cressdnaviricota.
- The replication of BBTV occurs in the cytoplasm of infected plant cells.
- BBTV is transmitted through infected planting material, contaminated tools, vegetative propagation, and insects like banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa).
The Disease Cycle of Banana Bunchy Top Disease
- The disease cycle of the Banana Bunchy Top Disease caused by BBTV is complex and involves multiple stages. The virus is transmitted through vegetative propagation and by banana aphids (Pentalonia nigronervosa).
- The banana aphid feeds on the sap of an infected plant, which contains the Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV). The virus replicates inside the insect vector and moves to the insect’s salivary glands. The infected aphid feeds on a healthy banana plant, and the virus is transmitted to the new plant through the insect’s saliva. The virus can also be transmitted through infected planting materials or contaminated tools.
- Once the virus is introduced into the new plant, it replicates within its cells, primarily in the phloem tissues. The virus uses the host plant’s machinery to produce new virus particles. Infected plants continue to produce virus particles, which can be transmitted to nearby plants through insect vectors or vegetative propagation.
- The disease can spread quickly in areas with a high concentration of banana plants. In some cases, infected plants may recover from the disease and become symptomless virus carriers. However, these plants can still serve as a source of infection for nearby healthy plants.
Occurrence of Banana Bunchy Top Disease in Banana Crop
- Location of Banana Bunchy Top disease: This disease occurs in Banana crops in India, Africa, China, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by BBTV are Bananas and Plantains.
Favorable Conditions for Banana Bunchy Top Disease Spread in the Field
- Hot and damp weather with optimal temperatures ranging from 25 to 30°C and high rainfalls will cause the disease to occur.
- Weeds can host the banana aphid, providing a refuge for the insect when banana crops are absent.
- The virus can be primarily transmitted through infected planting material, including suckers and corms, and secondarily by aphids. This can lead to the rapid spread of the virus to new areas.
- The infection can occur through wounds in the plant tissue, such as those caused by pruning, pests, and other forms of damage. Infected tools, equipment, and workers can also spread the virus.
- The virus can infect banana plants at any growth stage, but dwarf banana varieties and young plants are most susceptible.
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