The Banana Infectious Chlorosis Disease caused by the Banana Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a severe disease affecting banana plants worldwide. The economic impact of Banana Infectious Chlorosis Disease is significant, as it reduces fruit yield, quality, and marketability and can result in the complete loss of yield. CMV is a highly infectious virus that can rapidly spread from infected plants to healthy ones through infected suckers or aphid insect vectors, making it challenging to control the spread of the virus.
In severe cases, Banana Infectious Chlorosis Disease can cause complete crop loss. To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Banana Infectious Chlorosis Disease in Banana crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Banana Infectious Chlorosis Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Banana Infectious Chlorosis Disease
- Cucumber Mosaic Virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Family Bromoviridae of Order Martellivirales of the Phylum Kitrinoviricota.
- CMV is a highly infectious virus that can infect over 1,200 plant species. It was first reported in Taiwan in 1989.
- The virus replicates in the cytoplasm of the infected plant cells and causes severe damage to the host plant.
- CMV is transmitted through infected planting material, contaminated tools, vegetative propagation, insect vectors like melon aphids (Aphis gossypii & Aphis maidis), whiteflies, and thrips.
The Disease Cycle of Banana Infectious Chlorosis Disease
The disease cycle of the Banana Infectious Chlorosis Disease caused by CMV is complex and involves several steps. The disease cycle begins when an aphid vector feeds on an infected plant, acquiring the virus particles. The virus particles attach to the stylet of the aphid vector and are carried to healthy plants during feeding. Once the aphid vector acquires the virus, it can transmit it to healthy plants by probing and feeding.
The virus is transmitted non-persistent, meaning the virus particles are not retained in the vector’s body for an extended period. Once the virus is transmitted to a healthy plant, it replicates in the host plant’s cytoplasm. The virus hijacks the host plant’s cellular machinery to replicate and produce more virus particles. As the virus replicates in the host plant, it causes chlorotic mottling on leaves, stunted growth, and poor fruit quality, which are the symptoms of the disease.
The infected plants serve as a source of virus particles for aphid vectors to acquire and transmit to healthy plants, resulting in the secondary spread of the virus. The virus can also spread through infected plant material, contaminated tools, and soil. The virus can overwinter in infected plant debris, soil, and weeds, serving as a potential source of infection for the next growing season.