Mango Alternate Bearing or Biennial Bearing or Irregular Bearing is a complex physiological disorder affecting mango crops’ productivity and profitability. Mango alternate bearing is a physiological disorder that affects mango crops, causing them to produce uneven fruit yields over time. Managing alternate bearing in mango crops is a significant challenge for farmers, as there are no clear-cut solutions to the problem.
Strategies proposed to mitigate the effects of alternate bearing include cultural practices, such as pruning and thinning, plant growth regulators, and other chemical treatments. However, these methods have mixed success rates, and their effectiveness may depend on the specific conditions of the orchard and the variety of mango grown. Understanding the underlying causes of alternate bearing and developing effective management strategies are essential for sustaining mango production and ensuring the long-term viability of this important crop.
Mango Alternate Bearing and Clustering Disorders Management
Characteristics of Mango Alternate Bearing Disorder
- This phenomenon is characterized by a pattern in which trees heavily bear fruits in one year (on year), followed by a smaller or non-existent harvest the following year (off year).
- This cycle can continue for several years, leading to economic losses for mango farmers and a decrease in the quality of the fruit produced.
- This disorder is often observed in varieties with axillary fruit-bearing habits compared to the ones with terminal fruit-bearing habits.
Causes of Mango Alternate Bearing Disorder Development
- The cause of mango alternate bearing disorder is not entirely understood, but it is believed to be a combination of factors related to tree physiology, genetics, and environmental conditions.
- Some of the known factors that can contribute to alternate bearing include inadequate nutrition, water stress, disease, and pest infestations.
- The heavier consumption of essential nutrients like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reserves in the ‘on year’ will reduce crop production in the ‘off year’ as they are crucial for the fruit bud initiation phase.
- Axillary fruit-bearing varieties often develop this disorder due to higher crop load on the tree.
- A lower female-to-male gender ratio increases crop load in the ‘on year.’
- The trees affected by pests and diseases will be more susceptible to this disorder.
Favorable Conditions of Mango Alternate Bearing Disorder
- Rain, high humidity, and low-temperature result in the development of this disorder.
- A prolonged drought or waterlogging can cause stress to mango trees, resulting in a lower yield in the subsequent season.
- An extended period of cold or frost can damage the flowers, reducing the fruit set and ultimately leading to a lower yield.
- Lack of essential nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, can affect the development and maturation of mango fruit, leading to a lower yield in the following season.
- Higher quantities of auxins, inhibitor substances, and lower quantities of gibberellins are crucial for a flowering shoot.