The Mango Bacterial Canker Disease is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. Mangiferae indicae, also known as the leaf spot disease of mango, is a significant threat to mango crops worldwide. Mango is an economically important fruit crop grown in many parts of the world, with India being the largest producer, followed by China, Thailand, and Mexico.
This disease can cause significant yield losses, affecting fruit quality and quantity globally. Rain splashes, irrigation water, infected plant material, and contaminated pruning tools spread the bacteria. The control of Mango Bacterial Canker Disease is challenging due to its rapid spread and the lack of effective chemical control measures.
As a result, preventive measures and cultural practices are critical in managing the disease. To effectively manage this disease, it is essential to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Mango Bacterial Canker Disease in Mango crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Mango Bacterial Canker Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Mango Bacterial Canker Disease
- Xanthomonas campestris is a facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium that belongs to the Family Xanthomonadaceae of Order Xanthomonadales of the Phylum Pseudomonadota.
- The bacterium is 0.5 to 1.0 micrometers in diameter, rod-shaped and motile, with a single polar flagellum.
The Disease Cycle of Mango Bacterial Canker Disease
The disease cycle of the Mango Bacterial Canker Disease, Xanthomonas campestris, in Mango Crops starts from the foliage or floral parts and then spreads to the other parts of the plant. The bacteria infect the plant through natural openings or wounds, such as insect feeding sites, pruning cuts, or mechanical damage. It colonizes the intercellular spaces of the plant tissues, where it multiplies and spreads.
The bacterium produces a range of virulence factors, including extracellular polysaccharides like xantha gum, toxins, and enzymes, which facilitate colonization and cause disease symptoms. The bacterium produces water-soaked lesions and cankers and causes defoliation, fruit drop, stunted growth, and tree death. The cankers may ooze a bacterial exudate that dries to form a crust and can contain large numbers of bacteria, thus providing a source of inoculum for the disease.
Once the bacterium has colonized a host plant, it can be spread by various means, including rain, wind, insects, and contaminated tools. The disease can also be spread through irrigation water, facilitating the movement of the bacteria from infected to healthy plants completing its disease cycle.
Occurrence of Mango Bacterial Canker Disease in Mango Crop
- Location of Mango Bacterial Canker disease: This disease occurs in mango crops in India, Africa, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by Xanthomonas campestris are mango, papaya, tomato, pepper, and citrus crops like oranges, grapes, and avocado.
Favorable Conditions for Mango Bacterial Canker Disease Spread in the Field
- Warm and humid conditions, with temperatures between 27-32°C, high humidity, and heavy rainfalls, are ideal for bacterial growth.
- The bacteria can enter and infect the trees with wounds or injuries and are more susceptible to Mango Bacterial Canker Disease.
- Poor orchard hygiene can create conditions that favor the spread of the disease. Infected plant debris, pruning tools, and contaminated irrigation water can all contribute to the spread of the disease.
- High-density planting, trees planted too c