The Mango Gummosis Disease caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea is a significant threat to mango crops worldwide. The fungus can infect all parts of the mango tree, including leaves, flowers, and fruits, causing severe damage and reducing fruit yield and quality. Mango gummosis disease is commonly spread through wounds or pruning cuts on the tree, and the disease can also be transmitted through infected seeds and planting material.
The economic impact of mango gummosis disease is significant, as mangoes are a major cash crop in many countries. Effective management strategies for mango gummosis disease include regular tree maintenance, such as pruning and removing infected plant material and using fungicides and biological control agents.
Prevention through disease-free planting material and proper tree nutrition is also crucial to minimize the risk of infection. To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Mango Gummosis Disease in Mango crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Mango Gummosis Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Mango Gummosis Disease
- Botryosphaeria dothidea is a necrotrophic and filamentous fungus that belongs to the Family Botryosphaeriaceae of Order Botryosphaeriales of the Phylum Ascomycota.
- The fungus is characterized by the production of white to grey mycelium, a network of thin, branching filaments that grow through infected plant tissue.
- The fungus produces fruiting bodies called perithecia, which are small, black, spherical structures with asci (sac-like structures) that produce ascospores. The spores are hyaline (colorless) and have a single, large central septum.
- The fungus can also produce spores, called conidia, in chains and are dispersed by wind or water.
The Disease Cycle of Mango Gummosis Disease
The disease cycle of the Mango Gummosis Disease, Botryosphaeria dothidea, in Mango Crops starts with the production of spores by the fungus. Botryosphaeria dothidea produces both spores (ascospores) and spores (conidia) that are dispersed by wind or water. These spores can infect mango trees through wounds, pruning cuts, or natural openings such as stomata and lenticels.
Once the spores have entered the mango tree, they germinate and grow into mycelium, a network of thin, branching filaments that grow through infected plant tissue. The mycelium produces enzymes that break down plant cell walls, allowing the fungus to feed on and kill living plant tissue. As the infection progresses, the mango tree responds by producing a sticky sap-like substance that oozes from the infected areas. This substance is called gummosis, a characteristic symptom of mango gummosis disease.
The infected areas on the mango tree also become sunken and dark in color, which can lead to the tree’s wilting and death. The fungus can survive in infected plant material, such as fallen leaves and fruit, or in the soil around the tree. The fungus can also survive as dormant mycelium in infected plant tissue, which can re-activate and cause new infections under favorable environmental conditions.
Occurrence of Mango Gummosis Disease in Mango Crop
- Location of Mango Gummosis disease: This disease occurs in mango crops in India, Africa, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by Botryosphaeria dothidea are mango, citrus, avocado, grapevine, apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, olive, grapevine, ornamental plants, almond, and pistachio.
Favorable Conditions for Mango Gummosis Disease Spread in the Field
- Environmental factors such as high humidity and rainfall and poor tree nutrition can contribute to developing this disease.
- Warm and humid conditions, with temperatures between 25-30°C and heavy rainfalls, are ideal for fungal grow