The Mango Scab Disease caused by the fungus Elsinoë mangiferae is a huge threat to mango crops worldwide. The causal agent of this disease is responsible for scab-like lesions on leaves, fruits, and twigs. The disease can cause significant yield losses and reduce the quality of the fruit, resulting in economic losses for mango growers.
The Mango Scab Disease was first reported in India in the early 1900s and has since spread to many other mango-growing regions, including Southeast Asia, South America, Africa, and Australia. Effective management strategies involve a combination of cultural, chemical, and biological methods, and ongoing research is needed to develop sustainable solutions to control this disease.
To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Mango Scab Disease in Mango crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Mango Scab Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Mango Scab Disease
- Elsinoë mangiferae is a facultative parasite that belongs to the Family Elsinoaceae of Order Myriangiales of the Phylum Ascomycota.
- The fungus is characterized by tiny, black, and round fruiting structures called ascomata or pseudothecia. These are the reproductive structures that contain asci, which are sac-like structures that contain ascospores.
- The ascospores of Elsinoë mangiferae are the primary means of dispersal and infection. The ascospores are hyaline and cylindrical, with a small, germ-like slit at one end.
- The fungus also produces spores called conidia. They are hyaline, single-celled, and cylindrical and are produced on small, olive-brown pycnidia, flask-shaped fruiting structures.
The Disease Cycle of Mango Scab Disease
The disease cycle of the Mango Scab Disease, Elsinoë mangiferae, in Mango Crops starts with the production of spores by the fungus. It produces two types of spores, ascospores, and conidia. The ascospores are produced in the pseudothecia fruiting structures embedded in infected tissue. The pseudothecia can remain dormant in the infected plant tissue or fallen debris until environmental conditions become favorable for spore release.
The ascospores are forcibly ejected when mature and can be carried by wind, rain, or insects to infect other mango trees. The conidia are produced in pycnidia found on the surface of infected plant tissue. The conidia can be easily spread by wind, rain, or human activity. The infection begins when the ascospores or conidia land on the surface of mango leaves, fruits, or twigs.
The spores can penetrate the host tissue through natural openings or wounds. Once inside the host tissue, the fungus grows and develops, causing lesions on the plant tissue’s surface. Once the fungus has infected the host tissue and caused symptoms, it enters the sporulation phase. During this phase, the fungus produces new spores, which can be released and spread to infect other mango trees, continuing the cycle.
Occurrence of Mango Scab Disease in Mango Crop
- Location of Mango Scab disease: This disease occurs in mango crops in India, Africa, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by Elsinoë mangiferae are mango, cashew nut, and pistachio.
Favorable Conditions for Mango Scab Disease Spread in the Field
- The disease is prevalent in warm, humid, and rainy conditions and is more severe during the monsoon season, which coincides with the fruiting season of mango trees.
- The fungus thrives in warm temperatures between 25°C to 30°C and high humidity levels between 80% to 100%.<