Mastitis, which can affect sows and gilts’ udders, is a prevalent and costly disease in the pig farming industry. It is an inflammatory disorder brought on by a bacterial infection, and its consequences can vary from minor aches and pains to severe disease and even death. Mastitis is a common occurrence that causes a great deal of worry for swine farmers worldwide. Teat injuries from piglets biting or rubbing against rough floors frequently result in illness.
The bacteria that cause the illness can also spread due to poor hygiene habits. Swelling, heat, and pain are the first symptoms of mastitis, which can rapidly progress to a hot, hard, and swollen udder. The udder may form lumps in chronic instances, which can be uncomfortable for the sow and even lead to piglet death.
Managing mastitis disease is crucial for pig producers to avoid financial losses and keep their herds healthy and productive. Mastitis must be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible to prevent the bacteria from infecting other animals in the flock. The use of vaccines and antibiotics, frequent udder inspection, and good hygiene practices can all help reduce the incidence and severity of the disease.
The management of Mastitis disease in pigs, including its symptoms, treatment, prevention, and general disease management, will be covered in detail in this article. Pig farmers can successfully manage and prevent Mastitis disease by adhering to these recommendations, ensuring the health and welfare of their animals as well as the success of their enterprise.
Mastitis Management in Pig/Swine
Causes of Mastitis Disease in Pig/Swine
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the bacterium most often linked to sows with mastitis infections. Other bacteria like Arcanobacterium pyogenes, streptococci, and staphylococci can also bring on single-gland infections. Unclipped piglet canines, subpar flooring, or rough sawdust bedding can traumatize the teats and cause injury, putting sows at risk for infection. Following teat contamination, the infection enters through the teat canal, and germs grow in the gland.
Due to the endotoxin produced by E. coli, the infection may be temporary or result in severe mastitis with systemic symptoms and agalactia. Following trauma to the teat, Klebsiella spp.-caused mastitis can also manifest as outbreaks of fatal illness. Mastitis can isolate a broad range of E. coli serotypes, and these serotypes all have fimbriae, adhesive fibers that enable them to adhere to epithelial surfaces.
Disease Cycle of Mastitis Disease
Individual glands can become infected with mastitis in piglets, brought on by exposure to bacteria in the sow’s environment. Direct transfer between sows is unlikely to happen. Although particular organisms may cause outbreaks when introduced to farrowing facilities, teat damage is typically needed as a predisposing factor.
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The infection may reach the mammary gland through the teat canal after teat contamination. Infection is predisposed by trauma caused by unclipped piglet teeth, sawdust bedding, or subpar carpeting. After farrowing, mastitis may return in subsequent animal batches if the environmental variables are not addressed. To stop mastitis from recurring, it is imperative to improve the environment and hygiene of the sow’s environment.
What are the Symptoms of Mastitis Disease?
- Lack of appetite
- Fever (temperatures of 40.5-42°C, 105-107°F)
- Swollen and oedematous udder
- Pus in secretion obtained after oxytocin injection.
- Restlessness and pain in the udder when piglets attempt to suck
- Poor litter condition and weight loss
- Acute mastitis usually occurs within 1-3 days of parturition.
- Respiratory distress may develop, leading to death.
- Sub-acute infection or infection in one or more glands may cause increased hardness of the gland and a square area of reddening or skin over the affected gland.
- Mastitis in a single gland may be noted when an affected gland fails to return to normal after weaning.
- Teat injury may be present.