Mucohemorrhagic diarrhea of swine is called swine dysentery, and it only affects the piglets’ large intestines. There is a correlation between swine dysentery and poor growth rate, and variable mortality in growing and performance of pigs. The disease is caused by the bacteria Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which can spread quickly throughout a pig herd if left uncontrolled.
The impact of swine dysentery on the swine industry can be severe, with infected pigs experiencing poor growth rates, decreased feed efficiency, and even death. The cost of treating infected pigs can also be high, and outbreaks can lead to significant financial losses for producers. Swine dysentery management is important for pig farming operations’ health and profitability.
Effective disease management necessitates a comprehensive strategy comprising early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and effective prevention and control measures. This article will discuss the signs and symptoms of swine dysentery and the available treatments, preventative measures, and overall best practices for dealing with illnesses on pig farms.
Swine Dysentery Disease Management in Pig/Swine
Causes of Swine Dysentery Disease in Pig/Swine
Swine dysentery is caused by three species of the bacteria Brachyspira: B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, and B. suanatina. These bacteria are anaerobic spirochetes that can be found in the feces of infected pigs, in contaminated water, and on contaminated transport vehicles.
Disease Cycle of Swine Dysentery Disease
The transmission of the disease is fecal-oral, with infected pigs shedding the bacteria in their feces. Once ingested, the bacteria colonize the large intestine of pigs and begin to increase. This causes mucosal inflammation and degeneration, which can cause external mucosal bleeding to occur in multiple locations. Hypersecretion of mucus by the mucosal epithelium and impaired mucosal reabsorption of endogenous fluids contribute to diarrhea development.
Sick pigs shed the bacteria that cause swine dysentery. These bacteria can then get into the water and other surfaces. Pigs can get sick if they eat contaminated food, drink contaminated water, or get bacteria from other places. Once infected, the bacteria begin to colonize the large intestine, leading to the characteristic symptoms of the disease.
What are the Symptoms of Swine Dysentery Disease?
- The initial symptoms of swine gastroenteritis are anorexia and loose stools.
- Rapidly, diarrhea turns mucohemorrhagic, with copious mucus and open blood.
- The protracted illness causes dehydration, gaunt flanks, and significant weight loss.
- If left untreated, morbidity may exceed 50 percent, and mortality may be substantial.
- Only the cecum, spiral colon, and rectum are affected.
- Mucosal lesions are frequently present at the spiral colon’s apex.
- The affected mucosa is variably swollen and coated with a layer of transparent to slightly opaque mucus that frequently contains blood specks.
- A mixture of blood, fibrin, and necrotic residue accumulates in the colonic lumen.
- Microscopically, moderate typhlocolitis progresses from superficial neutrophilic inflammation in acute cases to lymphoplasmacytic and hyperplastic goblet cells in chronic cases.
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