Enterotoxemia, also known as overeating, is a highly fatal bacterial disease affecting various domestic animals, including goats. The disease is caused by the bacteria Clostridium perfringens, commonly found in soil, feces, and the intestines of humans and animals. Enterotoxemia is a significant concern for goat farmers, as it can lead to significant economic losses due to the high mortality rates of infected animals.
Enterotoxemia Management in Goats
Causes of Enterotoxemia Disease
Enterotoxemia is caused by Clostridium perfringens, which produce a toxin that can lead to various symptoms and conditions, including sudden death, hemorrhagic enteritis, and enterotoxemia.
Occurrence of Enterotoxemia Disease
Enterotoxemia disease caused by Clostridium perfringens can occur in animal species, including goats, sheep, cattle, and other livestock. The disease has a worldwide distribution and is commonly found in soil, feces, and the intestines of animals and humans. In goats, enterotoxemia is more common in grain-fed kids between the ages of 3-12 weeks old, although adult goats may also be affected. The disease is often associated with a high-concentrate diet and can be more severe in overcrowded or confined conditions.
Disease Cycle of Enterotoxemia in Goat
- Ingestion: The cycle begins when goats ingest the spores of C. perfringens type D from contaminated feed, soil, or water.
- Colonization: Once inside the intestine, the spores germinate into vegetative cells, which colonize the small intestine.
- Toxin Production: As the vegetative cells grow and multiply, they produce epsilon toxin, which damages the lining of the intestines, causing inflammation, hemorrhage, and edema.
- Many disease symptoms, such as sudden death, diarrhea, fever, lack of appetite, stomach discomfort, and neurological indications, can result from damage to the intestinal lining.
- Shedding: Infected goats can shed C. perfringens type D spores in their feces, contaminating the environment and infecting other animals.
- Predisposing factors: The disease is more common in goats on a high grain diet or succulent pasture, as these feeds promote the growth of C. perfringens type D in the gut. The disease is also more common in well-fed animals in intensive feedlots.
Symptoms of Enterotoxemia Disease in Goat
- The peracute form of enterotoxemia in goats can cause sudden death in younger, healthy kids.
- Additional symptoms may include anorexia, rumination and rumen inactivity, bloating, melancholy, and a drunken look.
- Convulsions, lack of coordination, and other neurological symptoms might also manifest. Watery diarrhea and glucosuria may be present.
- Acute cases of enterotoxemia in goats are mainly characterized by dysentery, abdominal discomfort, and convulsions.
- Necropsy findings in acute cases may include pulmonary edema, necrosis of intestinal walls, and scattered hyperemic areas of the intestine.
- The large intestine’s lumen may include fibrinous casts, and the contents of the large intestine may be green, blood-stained, or mucoid.
- Edematous mesenteric lymph nodes may also be present.
- Other common findings may include fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac, extremely necrotic, soft kidneys (‘pulpy kidneys’), focal encephalomalacia, and petechiae of serosa of the brain, diaphragm, gastrointestinal tract, and heart.
Diagnosis of Enterotoxemia in Goat
- Epidemiological features