The fungal disease affects sorghum grains globally. Sorghum Head Mould or Blight is another name for this disease. In warm, humid regions, it reduces sorghum grain output and quality. To avoid and treat this disease, sorghum growers must understand the fungus’ disease cycle, its habitat, and risk factors. Sanitation, crop rotation, and fungicides should be used. This article covers sorghum grain mold disease symptoms, biology, and control.
Grain Mould/Head Mould/Head Blight Disease Management in Sorghum
The Causal Organism of Sorghum Grain Mould Disease
- Fusarium verticillioides, a fungus in diverse soil types, cause the illness.
- It was observed that sorghum kernels have or may be affected by almost 32 fungal genera.
- Fusarium, Curvularia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Phoma are sorghum crops’ five most common fungi.
- This fungal development can degrade grain quality, resulting in lower yields and economic losses for farmers.
The Disease Cycle of Sorghum Grain Mould Disease
- The fungi infect sorghum plants through wounds or natural openings to start the disease cycle. The fungus then poisons plant cells. The fungus grows white, fluffy conidia. Wind, water, insects, and other creatures spread conidia.
- After falling on sorghum grains, conidia germinate and breach the outer coating. The fungus produces conidia, which spread to nearby grains. Fungi generate poisons that discolor and destroy grain. Grain smells musty.
- The disease cycle ends when conidia spreads to other grains and repeat. The fungus can infect a field of sorghum grains, causing significant crop losses.
Mode of Spread and Survival of the Pathogen in Sorghum Crop
The pathogen can survive and live in the soil for many years. Wind-borne spores, polluted irrigation, and soil are all ways for the infection to spread. Conidia borne by wind currents are the principal mechanism of fungal dispersion. Most of the time, the fungus exists as saprophytes and parasites within decaying plant remnants.
Causes / Conditions Favorable for Sorghum Grain Mould Disease Spread in the Field.
- High temperatures and relative humidity encourage fungal spore formation on sorghum grains, spreading the disease.
- Poor soil nutrition makes sorghum grains susceptible to the disease. Poor soil nutrition promotes fungal development and disease transmission.
- Insects like aphids, leafhoppers, and thrips can transmit fungal spores from plant to plant, boosting field disease transmission.
- Late planting, poor crop rotation, and inadequate fungicide and pesticide usage can help spread the disease.
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