The Mango Anthracnose Disease is a fungal disease caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This disease affects mango crops worldwide and is considered one of the most serious diseases of mango. Infected trees can show symptoms on flowers, fruit, leaves, and twigs. Managing mango anthracnose disease involves pruning and removing infected parts, fungicide applications, and cultural practices such as maintaining good soil fertility, resistant varieties, and water management.
To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Mango Anthracnose Disease in Mango crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Mango Anthracnose Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Mango Anthracnose Disease
- Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a wind-borne saprophyte that belongs to the Family Glomerellaceae of Order Glomerellales of the Phylum Ascomycota.
- Its mycelium is haploid, septate, and colored.
- Conidia are uni-cellular, heterothallic, transparent, and elongated. The conidial germ tube produces dark appressoria. These spores are spread by wind, water, and insects and can travel large distances.
- C. gloeosporioides is the anamorph stage, whereas the Glomerella cingulata is the teleomorph stage of the disease.
The Disease Cycle of Mango Anthracnose Disease
The disease cycle of Mango Anthracnose Disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, in Mango Crops starts with the fungus present in the environment. The fungus is spread by splashing water or wind-driven rain. Infected seedlings or other infected plants can also spread the fungus.
Once the fungus is present on the mango crop, it will germinate and penetrate through leaf stomata, wounds, and damaged areas. The fungus will then produce spores spread by wind, water, and insects. These spores can then infect other plants, which can then spread the disease further. The spores infect the fruits while they are green through the pores on the fruit, and the latent infection occurs through lenticels. The disease can also be transmitted by contaminated pruning tools and irrigation water.
Once the fungus has infected the mango crop, it will cause leaf lesions. These lesions will produce more spores, which will spread the disease further. The fungus will cause rot on the leaves and fruit, which can lead to the fruit dropping off prematurely. The fungus can also spread to other plant parts, such as the stem and roots. This can cause the plant to become weak and can lead to wilting and death. The fungus in the dead twigs and other crop debris is the primary source of infection. The secondary mode of infection is air-borne conidia.
Occurrence of Mango Anthracnose Disease in Mango Crop
- Location of Mango Anthracnose disease: This disease occurs in mango crops in India, Sri Lanka, France, Brazil, Indonesia, Trinidad, Mexico, the United States of America, Peru, Portugal, Hawaii, and the Philippines.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by Mango Anthracnose Disease are mango, Citrus species, yam, papaya, avocado, coffee, eggplant, sweet pepper, and tomato.