Wheat Molya Nematode, Heterodera avenae, belonging to the Family Heteroderidae of the Order Tylenchida, lives their unfavorable phase in the form of a cyst; hence they are also known as Wheat Cyst Nematode. It is a type of roundworm found in the soil and feeds off the roots of wheat plants.
The wheat molya nematode is a microscopic worm that can cause significant damage to wheat crops, reducing yields and ultimately leading to crop failure if not prevented or controlled. The pest has many hosts, including cereals and other grasses, and has been found in most wheat-producing countries. The pest is difficult to detect and diagnose and has a high reproductive rate, making it difficult to contain.
To effectively manage this pest, it is important to understand its life cycle, its preferred habitats, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Molya Nematode Pest in wheat crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Wheat Molya Nematode Pest Management in Wheat
Life Cycle of Molya Nematode Pest in Wheat Crop
The life cycle of the wheat molya nematode pest in wheat crops is complex. This pest commonly has four stages in its life cycle, they are egg, juvenile, adult, and egg-laying stages. The first stage is the egg stage. The eggs of the wheat molya nematode pest are laid in the soil, typically near the base of the wheat plant, in a cyst, along with a dead adult female body, during unfavorable conditions.
The second stage is the juvenile stage. In this stage, the eggs will be released into the soil, hatch into juvenile nematodes, and undergo metamorphosis and molt four times before becoming an adult. They will parasitize on the roots of the wheat plant and causes damage to the root system, and reduce the crop yield. The third stage of the life cycle is the adult stage.
They will feed on the roots and leaves of the wheat plant, causing further damage to the crop. The fourth stage is the egg-laying stage. The adult nematodes will lay eggs in the soil near the base of the wheat plant. The eggs will then hatch into juvenile nematodes and start the cycle again. Depending on the environmental conditions, the wheat molya nematode pest’s life cycle can take two to four weeks.
Occurrence of Molya Nematode Pest in Wheatfield
- Location of Wheat Molya Nematode: The wheat molya nematode pest has been found to infest wheat crops in countries worldwide, including the United States, India, China, Pakistan, Egypt, Iran, Russia, and Turkey. In India, the pest infects the wheat crops in Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.
- Host Range: The molya nematode can infect different crops, including wheat, barley, oats, rye, triticale, and grasses.
Factors Favoring Population Increase of Molya Nematode Pest in Wheatfield
- Climate – Warm and humid conditions favor developing Molya nematode populations. High temperatures and high humidity are favorable conditions for the nematodes to feed, reproduce, and thrive in. In addition, free moisture in the soil creates an ideal environment for them to survive.
- Crop residues – Crop residues, such as