Black quarter, also known as a black leg, is a serious and often fatal bacterial disease that affects cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats. The Disease primarily affects young animals between 6-24 months of age in good health. It is a soil-borne infection that typically occurs during the rainy season. In India, the disease is usually seen in isolated cases and is caused by the bacterium Clostridium chauvoei.
An acute disease affecting cattle, characterized by muscle swelling, with a milder form in buffaloes. The disease is thought to be spread through the contaminated pasture. The black quarter is a devastating disease that requires prompt attention and management to prevent widespread outbreaks.
Black Quarter Disease Management in Cattle
Causes of Black Quarter (black-Leg) Disease in Cattle
The bacterium Clostridium chauvoei causes black quarter, often called black-leg, a disease of cattle. This gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria with rounded ends are found in soil and pastures worldwide. Cattle between 6 months and 24 months that are otherwise healthy are particularly vulnerable to this potentially lethal illness.
Disease Cycle of Black Quarter (black-Leg) Disease
Clostridium Organism Transmission
The bacteria that causes Blackleg illness lives in the intestines of animals and may persist in soil for many years. Contaminated pasture is thought to be the cause of the virus, which is likely swallowed by the animal and spreads to other tissues through circulation.
The Spread of Blackleg
The bacteria Clostridium causes Blackleg and may be detected in the spleen, liver, and digestive system of animals. Although the actual origin of bacteria spreading in muscle tissues is unknown, physical stress during transportation, herding, and handling is thought to generate circumstances conducive to bacterial development and tissue injury.
What Are the Symptoms of Black Quarter (black Leg) Disease?
- Sudden fever (107°F to 108°F) with loss of appetite and depression
- Rapid pulse and heart rate, difficulty breathing
- Lameness in the affected leg with crepitating swelling in the hind or fore quarter
- Trembling muscles with violent twitching
- Suspended rumination
- Hot and painful swelling in the loin, buttocks, and sometimes shoulders, chest, and neck
- Cracking sound when the swelling is pressed due to gas accumulation
- Death within 24 to 48 hours, with the swellings becoming cold and painless at the end.
Diagnosis of Black Quarter in Cattle
The diagnosis of Black Quarter in cattle can be made based on history, clinical findings, and necropsy examination. A rapi