The Mango Stem End Rot Disease is a destructive fungal disease caused by the fungus Diplodia natalensis, also known as Diplodia tip blight. It is believed to have originated in South Africa. It affects the stem end of the mango fruit, causing rot and decay. The fungus attacks the mango fruits and causes the fruit’s stem end to rot and eventually fall off. The fungus produces spores that can survive up to 3 months in a dry environment.
Infected fruits are more susceptible to other diseases, such as anthracnose and scab. Good agricultural practices such as proper irrigation, adequate nutrient supply, and crop rotation can also help reduce disease incidence. To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Mango Stem End Rot Disease in Mango crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Mango Stem End Rot Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Mango Stem End Rot Disease
- Diplodia natalensis is an obligate parasite that belongs to the Family Botryosphaeriaceae of Order Botryosphaeriales of the Phylum Ascomycota.
- The fungus produces fruiting bodies that are brown to black, pear-shaped, ostiolate, and globose. There are two types of conidia produced in the pycnidium. One is single-celled, thin-walled, and transparent. The other is two-celled, thick-walled, and with six longitudinal stripes.
- These pycnidia contain spores spread by wind and rain, allowing the fungus to infect new plants.
The Disease Cycle of Mango Stem End Rot Disease
The disease cycle of the Mango Stem End Rot Disease, Diplodia natalensis, in Mango Crops begins with the initial infection of the tree, which usually occurs during the flowering stage when wind-blown spores spread the fungus. These spores land on the mango tree’s flowers, fruits, and stems, where they germinate and form mycelium, a mass of branching fungal filaments.
The fungus’s mycelium then penetrates the mango fruits’ surface, forming fruiting bodies which produce secondary spores. These secondary spores are released into the air and can spread to other mango trees, infecting them with the disease. Once the disease has infected a mango tree, the fungus will cause rot at the fruit’s stem end. This rot is usually characterized by soft, brown, and watery spots, which can eventually spread to the entire fruit, causing it to develop a characteristic “dark spot.”
The fungus can also colonize the wood and bark of the tree, causing cankers, which can eventually girdle the trunk and branches, leading to dieback. The fungus can thrive in the humid and warm environment of the mango tree and can remain active for many years, even without new infections.
Occurrence of Mango Stem End Rot Disease in Mango Crop
- Location of Mango Stem End Rot disease: This disease occurs in mango crops in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by Mango Stem End Rot Disease are mango, papaya, guava, banana, citrus, and avocado.