White Gut Disease is a major disease that can cause mass mortalities in shrimp. It is caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio. Poor water quality, low dissolved oxygen levels, the stress in shrimp, and abnormal temperature differences in the water can trigger it. Shrimp affected by White Gut Disease will release white fecal matter. To prevent White Gut Disease, it is important to ensure that the shrimp are not stressed and to maintain good water quality by frequently exchanging water.
Feeding the shrimp with immunostimulants such as “Protect” can also help prevent the disease. Applying probiotics like “Escort” in regular intervals can reduce the chances of disease by eliminating unwanted and problem-causing bacteria. Gut care products like “Cleargut” can also keep the animal’s gut clean and reduce the risk of White Gut Disease. Overall, it is important to take preventative measures and maintain good conditions to prevent White Gut Disease and avoid mass mortalities in shrimp.
White Gut Disease Management in Shrimp
The Pathogen Causing White Gut Disease in Shrimp
White Gut Disease (WGD) in shrimp is caused by pathogenic factors such as Vibrio spp. bacteria and Gregarines protozoa. The exact cause is still unclear. White Gut Disease is a common shrimp disease caused by Vibrio, a Gram-negative bacteria. It has a high mortality rate in shrimp, and one of the most visible symptoms is the discharge of white fecal matter. Poor water quality, low amounts of dissolved oxygen, shrimp stress, and temperature fluctuations are all variables that can lead to the formation of White Gut Disease.
Spread and Transmission of White Gut Disease in Shrimp
- Accumulation of sludge: Feces, uneaten feed, and dead phytoplankton cause sludge buildup in ponds, which creates an oversupply of phytoplankton nutrition. It leads to pH fluctuations, causing phytoplankton to die off, and anoxic conditions, resulting in toxic substrates that are harmful to shrimp. Proper placement of aerators and maintaining sufficient oxygen levels are crucial to prevent sludge buildup and anaerobic decomposition of organic matter.
- Overfeeding and poor feed quality: Poor feed management and quality contribute to WGD. Feeding too much and based on leftover feed on feeding trays instead of culture density causes low feed quality and undigested feed, leading to water quality decline.
- Deteriorating water quality: Monitoring water quality parameters regularly is important to prevent WGD. Extremely low oxygen levels and low alkalinity levels can cause peak mortality rates. Low DO and alkalinity levels can affect the nitrification cycle and cause ammonia accumulation, which stresses shrimp. Poor water quality also makes shrimp more susceptible to disease outbreaks.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of White Gut Disease in Shrimp?
White Gut Disease in shrimp can be identified by signs and symptoms. These include the dark discoloration of gills, the white and pale color of the hepatopancreas and gut, floating white fecal strings, and a loose shell. Shrimp with these symptoms can be seen, and they may be a sign of a serious health problem that can kill a lot of them.
- WGD includes dark discoloration of gills and pale color of hepatopancreas and gut
- Floating white fecal strings are another symptom, indicating a compromised digestive system.
- WGD can lead to a loose shell, making shrimp more vulnerable to infection.
It is important to monitor shrimp carefully for these signs and take prompt action to prevent the spread of White Gut Disease and minimize its impact.
Diagnosis of White Gut Disease in Shrimp
One of the steps is to wet the mount of the gut to check for the parasitic protozoan gregarine, which can cause