Monodon-type Baculovirus (MBV) in Shrimp (Prawn): Disease Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Control

Monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) is a virus that causes challenges in shrimp farming. The virus is named after the first shrimp species that it was found to infect, the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). However, it can also infect other kinds of Shrimp. MBV is known to cause the shrimp industry, especially in Southeast Asia, to lose a lot of money.

Monodon-type Baculovirus (MBV) in Shrimp (Prawn)

MBV is a member of the Baculoviridae family, which includes other viruses that infect insects. It is a virus with a double-stranded DNA genome that goes around in a circle. The virus replicates itself inside the nucleus of infected cells, which damages cells and tissues and can lead to death.

Monodon-type Baculovirus (MBV) in Shrimp (Prawn)

The Pathogen Responsible for Monodon-type Baculovirus (MBV)

  • Monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) is a virus that causes disease in Shrimp, especially the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and other species.
  • The cause is a type A Baculovirus, a large, double-stranded DNA virus with an envelope that reproduces itself inside the nucleus of infected cells. The virus hurts the cells and tissues of Shrimp that have been infected.
  • It makes the Shrimp lose their appetite, feel tired, and grow more slowly. MBV is contagious and can spread quickly in shrimp farms, causing the shrimp industry to lose money.
  • For this disease to have less effect on shrimp populations, it is important to have good management and prevention plans, like strict biosecurity measures.

Spread and Transmission of Monodon-type Baculovirus (MBV) in Shrimp

  • In the 1970s, Monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) was first found in Taiwan. Since then, it has been found in many countries around the world.
  • This virus is very contagious and can kill up to 100% of the Shrimp it infects. Shrimp farms can also lose a lot of money because infected Shrimp grow slower and die.
  • It is thought that the virus spreads through contact with contaminated water, but the exact way it spreads still needs to be fully understood.
  • MBV is common and important to the economy in many places, like China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Australia. People are working on making a vaccine for the virus since there is no cure or way to prevent it.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Monodon-type Baculovirus (MBV) in Shrimp

Monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) can affect Shrimp at all stages of their life cycle and cause significant mortality rates. The signs and symptoms of MBV in Shrimp include:

  • Lethargy and reduced activity.
  • Anorexia and poor feeding.
  • Dark discoloration of the Shrimp’s body.
  • Reduced growth rate.
  • Fouling of gills and appendages by ciliates such as Zoothamnium spp. and Vorticella spp.
  • Loss of epithelial cells in the hepatopancreas, leading to damage to infected tissues.
  • Secondary bacterial infections can lead to mixed infections and increased mortality rates.
  • Mortality rates in larval Shrimp in hatcheries can reach up to 70-90% during acute MBV infections.
  • Clinical signs include lethargy, anorexia, poor feeding, dark coloration, and reduced growth rate. Infected shrimps are often associated with fouling of gills and appendages by ciliates such as Zoothamnium spp. and Vorticella spp.

These symptoms can lead to significant economic losses for shrimp farmers, especially in areas where MBV outbreaks are common.

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