Abortion, or the early termination of a pregnancy, is a serious problem in the cattle business due to its detrimental impact on reproductive efficiency and productivity. Infectious agents, dietary deficits, and environmental stresses can contribute to it. The underlying reason for abortion must be identified to treat and prevent the condition effectively.
Proper diet, immunization, and biosecurity measures are the management options for regulating and avoiding abortion in cattle. Early identification and timely management are critical for limiting the economic losses associated with cow abortion.
Abortion Management in Cattle
Causes of Abortion in Cattle
- Abortion in cattle can be caused by infectious conditions such as BVD, IBRT, Leptospirosis, Brucellosis, and others.
- Severe trauma, torsion of the uterus, twinning, and toxins can also cause abortion in cows.
- Coumarins from rat poison and moldy sweet clover, nitrates, chlorinated naphthalenes, and arsenics are examples of toxins that can cause abortion.
- Some plants, such as locoweeds, perennial broom weeds, and pine needles, may also lead to abortion in cattle.
- Estrogenic compounds, douching and infusion, artificial insemination of pregnant animals, and vitamin A, iodine, and selenium deficiencies can also cause abortion in cows.
Disease Cycle of Abortion in Cattle
The reason determines the cow abortion disease cycle. Infectious diseases start with pathogen exposure, which might come from other affected animals, contaminated feed or water, insects, or other vectors. The infection may increase and harm the cow’s reproductive system and fetus after entering. Damage can cause inflammation and abortion or stillbirth.
The pathogen may cause persistent infections in cows, causing repeated abortions or other health issues. Aborted cows may shed the virus, increasing herd transmission risk. Trauma, poisons, and dietary deficits may cause cow abortions with distinct illness cycles. Toxic substances can immediately injure the fetus or reproductive system. At the same time, dietary shortages can impair fetal growth and increase abortion risk.
What are the Symptoms of Abortion in Cattle?
The symptoms of abortion in cattle may include protrusion of fetal membranes or water bags from the vulva before the calving date, discharges from the vulva, and spontaneous expulsion of a dead or underdeveloped fetus. Other clinical symptoms can include:
- A dull and depressed condition of the animal.
- Signs of pain or discomfort.
Early detection of these symptoms is crucial to prevent the spreading of infectious conditions and ensure proper care for affected animals.
Diagnosis of Abortion in Cattle
Abortion in cattle is diagnosed by a comprehensive assessment of the animal and its surroundings and scientific tests. A veterinarian often performs a physical examination to examine the animal’s overall health and identify any clinical signs, such as discharges or fetal membrane protrusion.
Laboratory laboratories may use bacterial cultures, PCR, and serological testing to identify infectious disorders such as BVD or IBR. Remaining procedures, including necropsy and histology, can assist in determining the reasonableness of the abortion and identifying any possible hazards to the herd’s other animals.
Treatment and Control of Abortion Disease
- Early diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
- Isolation of affected animals to prevent the spread of disease.
- Follow proper biosecurity measures to avoid disease transmission.
- Proper cleaning and disinfection of animal sheds.
- Regular vaccination and testing of animals to prevent outbreaks.
- Implementing a herd health program with the help of a veterinarian.
- Monitoring the health and behavior of animals closely for any signs of illness.
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