Pigs are more susceptible to the viral disease known as classical swine fever (CSF). It spreads quickly both within and between herds and is extremely contagious. Pigs that are infected exhibit a range of signs, such as fever, lethargy, hemorrhages, vomiting, and diarrhea, which is frequently yellow. Also, purple discoloration on infected swine’s legs, lower belly, and ears are possible.
Additionally, CSF can cause neurologic symptoms, infertility, and miscarriage. RT-qPCR, viral isolation, immunofluorescence assay, serologic tests like ELISA, and virus neutralization are just a few techniques used to diagnose CSF. Quick discovery is crucial to stop the spread of the illness and reduce financial losses.
However, vaccination is a successful method of disease prevention. In contrast to nations that are thought to be disease-free, vaccination is frequently used in areas where CSF is endemic. In addition to vaccinations, controlling outbreaks may also require additional steps like stringent biosecurity procedures, movement restrictions, and the euthanasia of infected animals.
Classical Swine Fever Management in Swine
Causes of Classical Swine Fever Disease in Swine
CSF is a viral disease that infects pigs and is caused by a small, enveloped RNA virus from the family Flaviviridae and the genus pestivirus. This virus is closely related to other pestiviruses like sheep’s border disease virus (BDV) and cattle’s bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).
Although these ruminant pestiviruses can infect pigs, most infections do not result in clinical illness. The pig’s immune system quickly clears them. However, pigs do develop an immune reaction after contracting these viruses. It is crucial to remember that CSF is very contagious and can significantly harm pig communities economically.
Disease Cycle of Classical Swine Fever Disease
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly spreading viral disease mostly spread through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated equipment, clothing, or feed. The virus can also spread over brief distances via airborne transmission. Once an animal is infected, the virus replicates in the lymph nodes. It distributes throughout the body, causing the disease’s recognizable clinical symptoms. The virus is shed by infected swine in their urine, feces, saliva, and nasal secretions, contaminating the environment and spreading the disease.
What are the Symptoms of Classical Swine Fever Disease?
- Pigs with an acute infection look seriously ill, inactive, and sleepy with an arched backs.
- Some pigs pose with straight tails and droopy heads.
- Constipation, anorexia, vomiting, high temperature, and huddling could occur.
- Conjunctivitis, a stumbling walk, back weakness, and purplish abdominal skin discoloration
- Pigs may experience convulsions in the final stage of the disease, which causes them to become recumbent before passing away.
- During the final phases, severe diarrhea also develops.