Welcome to our blog post on Common Mango Tree Diseases! Mango trees, known for their delicious fruits, are susceptible to various diseases affecting their health and productivity. This article will explore the symptoms, spread, identification, treatment, control, and management of these diseases. Get ready to unravel the mysteries of mango tree diseases as we delve into the perplexing world of these ailments.
Common Mango Tree Diseases
Common Mango Diseases That Affect Mango Trees
- Anthracnose: This is the most important disease of mango in humid production areas. It is caused by species of the Colletotrichum genus, with Colletotrichum asianum being the most important species. Anthracnose can cause significant postharvest losses in mango fruits.
- Bacterial Black Spot (BBS): Also known as bacterial canker, this disease can be the most important mango disease in areas where other fungal diseases are well managed. It is caused by different groups of bacteria, such as Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, X. axonopodis pv. Anacardii, and X. axonopodis pv. Spondiae.
- Stem-end Rots: These diseases are caused by various fungal pathogens, including Dothiorella dominicana, Dothiorella mangiferae, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Phomopsis mangiferae, and Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. They can result in heavy losses during fruit storage.
- Alternaria Rot or Black Spot: Caused by Alternaria alternata, this disease is more prevalent in arid environments. It can affect both fruit and leaves.
- Black Mildew, Sooty Moulds, Sooty Blotch: These diseases are caused by various fungi. Meliola mangiferae is a common cause of black mildew, while sooty molds develop in the presence of insects that produce honeydew.
Other occasional fruit diseases include bacterial rot, blue mold, charcoal rot, Macrophoma rot, Mucor rot, Phyllosticta rot, Phytophthora rot, and Rhizopus rot. Foliar and floral diseases that can affect mango trees include algal leaf spots (red rust), apical necrosis caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, black-banded disease caused by Rhinocladium corticola, grey leaf spot caused by Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, leaf blight caused by Macrophoma mangiferae, and malformation, which is one of the most destructive mango diseases.
Powdery Mildew Disease Damage on Mango Tree
Disease Symptoms: Powdery mildew is a common disease characterized by a white powdery fungal growth on leaves, stalks of panicles, flowers, and young mango fruits. It leads to dropping affected flowers and fruits, reducing crop load and fruit set. The fungus attacks young tissues of the inflorescence, leaves, and fruits, with young leaves more prominently affected. These patches can merge and turn purplish-brown.
Survival and Spread: The powdery mildew fungus survives in dormant buds during winter and produces spores when conditions are favorable in spring. These spores cause new infections, and secondary spread spores are produced cause new infections. Rains or mists and cooler nights during flowering create congenial conditions for spreading disease. Rains or mists favor the spread of powdery mildew with cooler nights during flowering.
Treatment, Maintenance, and Control Measures: Clean the Mango tree area. In addition to other effective fungicides, you can spray wettable sulfur or carbendazim fungicide. The first spray can be applied immediately after the flowers bloom, and the second spray can be applied 15 days later.
Anthracnose Disease Damage on Mango Tree
Disease Symptoms: Anthracnose disease commonly causes serious damage to young mango shoots, flowers, and fruits, including fruit rot during storage. It manifests as leaf spots, blossom blight, wither tip, twig blight, and fruit rot. Tender shoots and foliage are easily affected, leading to the dieback of young branches. Severe infections destroy the entire inflorescence and fruit drop.
Survival and Spread: The fungus causing anthracnose survives in dead twigs and other hosts, serving as a source of primary infection. High humidity, frequent rains, and temperatures between 24-32°C favor the developing of the disease.
Treatment, Maintenance, and Control Measures: sprinkle Pseudomonas fluorescens on flowering twigs every three weeks