The Mango Phoma Blight Disease caused by the fungus Peyronellaea glomerata, previously known as Phoma glomerata, is a devastating disease affecting worldwide mango crops. This disease can cause significant yield losses, affecting fruit quality and quantity. The Peyronellaea glomerata fungus overwinters in infected plant debris and soil and is spread by wind, rain, and contaminated pruning tools.
Mango Phoma blight can be managed through cultural practices such as proper sanitation, removal of infected plant debris, and use of disease-free planting material. Fungicides can also be used for disease control, but their effectiveness may vary depending on the disease development stage and the infection’s severity.
To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Mango Phoma Blight Disease in Mango crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Mango Phoma Blight Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Mango Phoma Blight Disease
- Peyronellaea glomerata is a seed-borne fungus that belongs to the Family Phaeosphaeriaceae of Order Pleosporales of the Phylum Ascomycota.
- The fungus is characterized by small, black, irregularly-shaped, multicellular fruiting bodies called pycnidia, which are 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter, surrounded by a layer of hyphae, and release spores known as conidia.
- The conidia are hyaline and cylindrical or slightly curved. They have a single germ pore at one end and are typically produced in chains.
The Disease Cycle of Mango Phoma Blight Disease
The disease cycle of the Mango Phoma Blight Disease, Peyronellaea glomerata, in Mango Crops begins with overwintering the fungus in infected plant debris and soil. In the spring, when conditions become favorable, the fungus produces pycnidia, the fruiting bodies that contain the spores called conidia. The pycnidia appear as black, tiny, raised structures on infected plant tissues, such as leaves, stems, and fruit.
These pycnidia are scattered across the surface of infected plant tissues, such as leaves, stems, and fruit. The conidia are produced in chains within the pycnidia and are disseminated by wind, rain, and other means, causing new infections in healthy plant tissues. The conidia germinate and produce hyphae, which penetrate the plant tissues, causing infections. The fungus can infect all parts of the mango tree, including leaves, shoots, flowers, and fruit.
Once inside the plant tissues, the fungus produces mycelia, which grow and spread throughout the host. The mycelia produce enzymes that break down plant tissues, causing dark, sunken lesions on the infected tissues. These lesions produce spores and are released into the air, completing the disease cycle.
Occurrence of Mango Phoma Blight Disease in Mango Crop
- Location of Mango Phoma Blight disease: This disease occurs in mango crops in India, Africa, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by Peyronellaea glomerata are mango, avocado, papaya, guava, cucumber, tomato, pepper, olive, grape, and grapevine.