Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly infectious disease that affects goats, sheep, and wild ruminants. This disease is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae, which can spread quickly among susceptible animals through direct or indirect contact. CCPP is a significant threat to the livestock industry, as it can result in severe respiratory illness with high morbidity and mortality rates.
The disease is characterized by sero-fibrinous pleuropneumonia, which can lead to respiratory distress, fever, and coughing. The rapid spread of CCPP among susceptible animals can result in significant economic losses, especially in areas where small-scale farmers rely on goats for their livelihoods. Due to the high mortality rate, CCPP is considered a significant threat to animal health, welfare, and food security.
Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Management in Goats
Causes of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Disease
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae. The bacteria can survive for long periods in the environment. They can be transmitted through direct contact between infected and susceptible animals or indirect contact with contaminated feed, water, or equipment. The disease can also be spread through the air over short distances.
Factors contributing to the spread of CCPP include poor animal husbandry practices, inadequate biosecurity measures, and the movement of infected animals across borders. High-density populations of goats and mixed farming systems where goats are kept with other livestock can also increase the risk of disease transmission.
CCPP can occur in goats of all ages, but young animals are particularly vulnerable. Stressful conditions such as transport, malnutrition, or concurrent infections can also increase the severity of the disease.
Symptoms of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Disease
- Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a respiratory illness that primarily affects goats but can also affect sheep and wild ruminants. The disease can occur in peracute, acute, or chronic forms in endemic areas.
- In the peracute form, affected goats may die within 1-3 days without premonitory clinical signs. In acute infection, the initial signs are high fever, lethargy, and anorexia, followed by coughing and labored breathing within 2-3 days.
- The cough is frequent, violent, and productive, and the animal may have difficulty moving and standing with its front legs wide apart and neck stiff and extended. Other symptoms include continuous saliva drooling, grunting or bleeding in pain, frothy nasal discharge, and stringy saliva. Pregnant goats may abort.
- Chronic cases exhibit chronic cough, nasal discharge, and debilitation. Pathological features during necropsy are limited to the respiratory system, with acute cases characterized by unilateral pneumonia and sero-fibrinous pleuritis with straw-colored fluid in the thorax.
- The lung is granular with copious straw-colored exudates oozing out on the cut section, and pea-sized yellow-colored nodules may be present in the lungs surrounded by areas of congestion. The regional lymph nodes, mainly bronchial lymph nodes, may be enlarged.
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Disease Cycle of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Goats
- The main mode of transmission of CCPP is through inhalation of infected aerosols, which c