The Mango Sooty Mould Disease is an important fungal disease caused by the fungus Capnodium mangiferae, which insects, birds, and other animals spread. It is also known as black or blotch mould. The fungus can cause significant damage to the crop, leading to a reduced yield, as the fungus can reduce photosynthesis and the fruiting process. The disease can also reduce the quality of the fruit and even make the fruit inedible. The disease can spread quickly and severely reduce yields if not managed properly.
Early detection and prevention are key to successfully managing this disease. The effective way to prevent the disease is to control the insect population that spreads the fungus and maintain good cultural practices such as pruning and irrigating. To effectively manage this disease, it is important to understand its disease cycle, the mode of disease spread, and the best methods for controlling it. This article will provide an overview and discussion of the Mango Sooty Mould Disease in Mango crops, including its symptoms, identification techniques, and control.
Mango Sooty Mould Disease Management
The Causal Organism of Mango Sooty Mould Disease
- Capnodium mangiferae is a facultative saprophytic fungus that belongs to the Family Capnodiaceae of Order Capnodiales of the Phylum Ascomycota.
- It produces a black, powdery mass of chain spores on the plant surface.
- The spores are unicellular, dark brown to black, and ellipsoidal or cylindrical.
- The pathogen is found in the soil, decaying plant material, and other crop debris and can overwinter in plant debris in the orchard.
The Disease Cycle of Mango Sooty Mould Disease
The disease cycle of the Mango Sooty Mould Disease, Capnodium mangiferae, in Mango Crops begins when the sooty moulds colonize the honeydew secretions secreted by the insects such as aphids, mealybugs, and scale insects on leaves and fruits while feeding on the sap of trees. These fungi do not directly infect plants but instead grow on the surface of the plant tissues, such as leaves, stems, and fruits.
Sooty moulds derive their nutrients from sugary secretions called honeydew, produced by insects such as aphids, mealybugs, and scale insects. These insects feed on the mango tree sap, excreting a sugary liquid called honeydew, a substrate for the fungus to grow. The fungus colonizes the honeydew, forming a dark, sooty layer over the mango tree’s leaves, stems, and fruit.
The honeydew provides an ideal nutrient source for the fungus, which grows rapidly and forms a black, powdery coating on the plant surface. The coating of sooty mould can become quite thick and may cause a reduction in the plant’s photosynthetic ability, leading to reduced growth and yield. Capnodium mangiferae pathogen is primarily spread by insect vectors, especially the mango hopper (Idioscopus clypealis). The sooty mould can also spread from infected plant material or pruning tools.
Occurrence of Mango Sooty Mould Disease in Mango Crop
- Location of Mango Sooty Mould disease: This disease occurs in mango crops in India, Africa, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Thailand, the Philippines, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and Australia.
- Host range: The most common crops affected by Capnodium mangiferae are mango, avocado